Many writers of the early times defined economics as “a science of wealth”. Adam Smith frequently know as the father of modern day economics, defined economics as “An enquiry into the character and leads to of wealth of nations.”

These definitions had been defective since they gave significantly significance to wealth. As wealth is not every little thing, it only sales opportunities to reach welfare of human. As a result it is gentleman an which is the goal all of the financial actions.

Professor Dr. Alfred Marshall was the first economist who gave a logical definition of economics. He defined economics as: “A study of mankind in common company of existence, it analyze that component of person and social actions which is intently relevant with attainment and use of content requisites”


This definition gave a new path to the analyze of economics. Subsequent are the important characteristics of definition.

1. A Social Science

This Definition would make economics a social science. It is a issue that is involved with the individuals dwelling in society. According to Marshall, as the conduct of human beings is not similar all the time consequently concepts of economics are not able to be formulated like the laws of sciences. More legal guidelines of economics are not as precise as the legislation of organic sciences. For this reason it is a social science.

2. Examine Of Gentleman

Economics is related to man as a result it is living topic. It discusses financial complications and actions of man. According to Marshall it experiments the behavior of guy In ordinary business enterprise of lifestyle.

3. Wealth As A Usually means Of Substance Effectively Currently being

According to Marshall, prosperity is not the ultimate objective of human activities and thus we do not research prosperity, for the sake of prosperity. For that reason in accordance to this definition we study prosperity as a source of attainment of materials welfare.

4. Economics And Welfare

This definition tends to make economics a welfare oriented topic. We are worried only with those people financial activities which do not boost product welfare of human beings are out of the scope of economics.

5. Materiality

Marshal stresses upon the idea of “materials requisite of very well becoming”. Thus according to this definition all economic routines solve around the acquisition and use of substance merchandise like foods, outfits and many others. due to the fact they increase welfare of human beings. On the other hand non-materials requisites of human lifestyle like training, recreation are ignored.

6. Normative Outlook

According to this definition economics must get care of superior and lousy features of economic routines and as a result entail alone in “what should be and what should really not be”. This is known as normative element of economics.


“Robbins and other numerous economists severely criticized this definition on following grounds.”

1. Limited To Content Welfare

This definition restrictions the matter of economics to content welfare of men and women. But the issue of economics is not minimal to the review of product welfare of human beings. In fact the two materials and non material features of wellbeing are scientific studies in economics.

2. Obscure Strategy of Welfare

The thought of welfare employed in this definition is also not clear. The welfare of human beings is not constrained to the attainment of content requisites. There are numerous other factors which affect the human welfare. More the phrase “welfare” has distinctive which means for distinctive persons and various societies. As a result we can not define economics employing an unclear concept of welfare.

3. Limited Scope

This definition has produced the scope of economics minimal. Only all those routines are researched in economics which are aimed at the attainment of materials requisites of properly staying. More it ignores the economic activities of a particular person not residing in culture. Attainment of non materials requisites of human well getting tumble out of the scope of economics. This division of content and non material areas of human welfare is not suitable.

4. Economics And Welfare

In accordance to Robbins the study of economic actions on the basis of welfare is not very good. It is not the responsibility of an economist to go verdict that what is conducive to welfare and what is not. So in accordance to Robbins “What ever Economics is anxious with, it is not worried with causes of material welfare as these types of.

5. Ethical Judgment

In this definition Marshall helps make economics a matter which considers the right and mistaken aspect of financial functions. According to Robbins economics in neutral as regards ends and it is not the function of an economist to move ethical judgments and say what is fantastic and what is poor.

6. Unrealistic

This definition seems to be unrealistic as we examine it critically. The unclear principle of welfare, the division of finishes into substance and non product, the tension on superior and poor, the principle of guy living in society etc. all these concepts place unwanted restrictions and make the scope of economics minimal. These ideas make the definition unrealistic.


Even though this definition gave a new way to the issue of economics but it had quite a few weaknesses. Some of the faults of definition are talked over earlier mentioned. For these reasons this definition was replaced by other new definitions of economics.